Thermal conductance at the interface of a solid and helium II (Kapitza conductance)

by N. S. Snyder

Publisher: U.S. National Bureau of Standards; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. in [Washington]

Written in English
Published: Pages: 90 Downloads: 412
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Subjects:

  • Heat -- Transmission.,
  • Liquid helium.

Edition Notes

Bibliography: p. 82-90.

Statement[by] N. S. Snyder.
SeriesNBS technical note 385
Classifications
LC ClassificationsQC100 .U5753 no. 385
The Physical Object
Paginationviii, 90 p.
Number of Pages90
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL5168370M
LC Control Number74605438

The thermal contact conductance of a micrometer surface finish OFHC copper sample pair has been investigated from to K for a range of applied contact forces up to N. Experimental data have been fitted to the relation for the integral alpha T to the nth power dt by assuming that the thermal contact conductance is a simple power function of the sample temperature. have been the cause of the higher thermal conductivity values. The accuracy of the thermal conductivity data can be assessed well by the use of the parameter j=A/C.1], (5) where C. is the constant volume specific heat and 1] is the viscosity. For a monatomic gas such as helium the value of j should be very nearly j values calculated using Eq. While a finite thermal contact conductance is due to voids at the interface, surface waviness, and surface roughness, etc., a finite conductance exists even at near ideal interfaces as well. This conductance, known as thermal boundary conductance, is due to the differences in electronic and vibrational properties between the contacting materials. Thermal Interface Conductance between Aluminum and Silicon by Molecular Dynamics Simulations Nuo Yang, 1,2 Tengfei Luo, 3 Keivan Esfarjani,4 Asegun Henry, 5a,b Zhiting Tian,2 Junichiro Shiomi,6 Yann Chalopin,7 Baowen Li,1,8,9* Gang Chen2* 1Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, School of Physical Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance • Both properties are difficult to understand and control because they are integral properties. • For example, simplest case of thermal conductivity where resistive scattering dominates Λ = 1/3∫C(ω) v(ω) l(ω) dω C(ω) = heat capacity of phonon mode v(ω) = group velocity. The thermal contact conductance at the interface of two 1-cm-thick copper plates is measured to be 18, W/m 2 °C. Determine the thickness of the copper plate whose thermal resistance is equal to the thermal resistance of the interface between the plates. The effect on the Kapitza thermal resistance of dynamic surface monolayer at the interface between solid and superfluid helium is analyzed. the thermal conductance across a germanium atomic. Helium is a chemical element with atomic number 2 which means there are 2 protons and 2 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Helium is He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements.

Helium (from Greek: ἥλιος, romanized: Helios, lit. 'Sun') is a chemical element with the symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable. solid and fluid conductance, respectively. This simple relation shows that there are two paths for the heat to cross the joint: (i) by the means of the micro contacts and (ii) gas across the micro gaps. Radiation heat transfer across the micro and macro gaps was ignored. Figure 2. Temperature drop through the interface. range from room temperature down to liquid helium temperatures, where low temperature superconductors operate. The chart in Figure 5 compares the thermal conductance between copper contacts filled with hydrocarbon grease Apiezon N, a Cu filled grease compound named Cryocon or Indium foil between two copper How does the heat transfer conduction calculator works? The heat transfer conduction calculator below is simple to use. Enter the thermal conductivity of your material (W/m•K); OR select a value from our material database.; Input the cross-sectional area (m 2)Add your materials thickness (m)Enter the hot side temperature (°C)Enter the cold side temperature (°C).

Thermal conductance at the interface of a solid and helium II (Kapitza conductance) by N. S. Snyder Download PDF EPUB FB2

Thermal conductance at the interface of a solid and helium II (Kapitza conductance). [Washington] U.S. National Bureau of Standards; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,   The thermal conductance (Kapitza conductance) at the interface between a nanoparticle and surrounding water has been calculated using four different approaches: transient with/without temperature gradient (internal thermal resistance) in the nanoparticle, steady-state non-equilibrium, and finally equilibrium by: The temperature profiles of the cases Q-6, Q-7, Q-8, and Q-9 where the value of interface thermal conductance is h, h, h, and 2hrespectively were obtained.

In these cases, the value of the interface conductance was assumed to be larger than its original value by Cited by: 1. In a conventional Kapitza resistance experiment involving heat transfer across a copper surface into liquid helium, an acoustic streaming velocity fie Cited by: 1.

in a data book (Touloukian Y.S., DeWitt D.D., Thermophysical Properties of Matter(, Plenum).). Discussions The bonded interface shows good thermal conductance from 6 K to K. The technique of adhesion free bonding is promising to avoid an excess thermal resistance between a contact of mirror and suspension wire in LCGT.

Further in. As a result, a finite resistance to heat flow exists at the interface. This thermal contact resistance, R, may be defined as: (1) R = Δ T/q in which ΔT is the temperature drop at the interface, and q is the heat flux at the interface.

The thermal contact conductance, h, is the reciprocal of R. Download: Download full-size image; Fig. This chart gives the thermal conductivity of gases as a function of temperature.

Unless otherwise noted, the values refer to a pressure of kPa (1 bar) or to the saturation vapor pressure if that is less than kPa.

The notation P = 0 indicates the low pressure limiting value is given. the need for full understanding of thermal contact conductance, and the in uencing physical parameters.

Due to the uncertain variance of pressure distribution in a bolted joint, determination of thermal contact conductance becomes di cult. At the time of this thesis, models describing thermal contact conductance in bolted joints, were limited.

(Problem in the Book) A dormitory at a large university, built 50 years ago, has exterior walls constructed of L s = mm-thick sheathing with a thermal conductivity of k s = W/m K.

To reduce heat losses in the winter, the university decides to encapsulate the entire dormitory by applying a L i = mm-thick layer of extruded. thermal conductivities for temperatures in the transition range. There is a temperature lag between the sam-ple and reference pans in differential thermal analysis (DTA)-type DSC instruments, which causes some uncertainty in the tem-perature scale for fraction solid/temperature relations.

The. In this paper we extend previous results on the effective thermal conductivity of liquid helium II in cylindrical channels to rectangular channels with high aspect ratio. The aim is to compare the results in the laminar regime, the turbulent regime and the ballistic regime, all of them obtained within a single mesoscopic formalism of heat.

The thermal conductance at solid-solid interfaces is becoming increasingly important in thermal considerations dealing with devices on nanometer length scales. Specifically, interdiffusion or mixing around the interface, which is generally ignored, must be taken into account when the characteristic lengths of the devices are on the order of the.

Thermal Conduct iv i ty 1. Liquid Helium (At Saturation) 2. Gaseous Helium Dielectric Constant 1. Liquid Helium 2. Gaseous Helium Surface Tension Liquid Helium Viscosity 1. Liquid Helium 2. Gaseous Helium Velocity of Sound 1. Liquid Helium 2. Gaseous Helium Heat Transfer INDEX. Enhancing thermal transport mechanisms in nanostructures and nanomaterials are important factors for their use in green renewable energy applications.

The behaviors and reliability of nanoscale devices strongly depend on the way the systems dissipate heat. Therefore, using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigated the interface thermal resistance.

Thermal Conductivity of Helium. Helium is a chemical element with atomic number 2 which means there are 2 protons and 2 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Helium is He. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic.

within the interface which could either enhance or reduce the interfacial thermal conductance [4,5]. The length scale for the transmitted phonons to come to equilibrium is typically unknown in molecular structures, which raises questions like “what is the temperature” to be used in the definition of interfacial thermal conductance [6].

The thermal grease is a silicone oil with a Zinc Oxide filler and and are synthetic oils with various fillers including Aluminum Oxide and Boron Nitride.

At 25 °C the densities areand g/mL for the greasesand respectively. Helium II. He deduced that the entire AT occurred very close to the copper-helium interface. It is permissible therefore to define a thermal boundary resistance R K ≡ AT/Q, where Q is the heat flux per unit area of interface.

thermal conductivity as well as the interface heat conductance. One of the main objectives of this work is to compare the obtained results with some experimental and model data for the beryllium-helium packed bed thermal conductivity.

EXPERIMENTAL. Interface Thermal Conductance and the Thermal Conductivity of Multilayer Thin Films,” Effects of Temperature and Disorder on Thermal Boundary Conductance at Solid-Solid Interfaces: Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations Heat Transport Through Helium II: Kapitza Conductance,”.

The efficiency in modern technologies and green energy solutions has boiled down to a thermal engineering problem on the nanoscale. Due to the magnitudes of the thermal mean free paths approaching or overpassing typical length scales in nanomaterials (i.e., materials with length scales less than one micrometer), the thermal transport across interfaces can dictate the overall thermal.

Variation of thermal contact conductance with pressure across a silicon-copper interface with indium foil, silver foil, or an In-Ga-Sn eutectic [8] As expected, thermal contact resistance. R step is used to calculate the interface thermal conductance of CAI. The scale bar is 75 nm. (b) Interface thermal conductance (h INT) and interface thermal resistance (R.

The steady‐state thermal dissipation from heat‐generating thin‐film strips, immersed in liquid helium, has been examined by measuring the thermal hysteresis of the magnetically induced resistive transition of superconducting thin films of tin, deposited onto glass and aluminum substrates.

The dissipated heat was found to depend linearly on the temperature difference between the film. The thermal contact conductance for aluminum plates with a surface roughness of 10 μm placed in helium with the interface pressure of 1 atm is h c = W/m 2.K; The thermal contact conductance for stainless steel plates with a surface roughness of μm placed in air with the interface pressure of 1 MPa is about h c = W/m 2.K.

Non-intrusive measurement of thermal contact conductance at polymer-metal two dimensional annular interface 6 July | Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.

55, No. 2 Thermal conductance characterization of a pressed copper rope strap between K and 10 K. Diamond beats them all, and graphite beats diamond only if the heat can be forced to conduct in a direction parallel to the crystal layers.

The material with the greatest thermal conductivity is a superfluid form of liquid helium called helium II, which only exists at temperatures below K. To measure the thermal conductivity of the battery and interfacial thermal conductance across the separator-case interface, a temperature gradient must be established in the radial direction.

To achieve this, a dry battery is constructed with a cavity for insertion of a 60 Watt miniature cartridge. The thermal conductance of uranium dioxide/stainless steel interfaces was investigated in a disc-type apparatus under vacuum and with different interface gases (helium, argon, neon), and ranges of surface roughness (STA11 to.

x 10/sup -6/ cm, arithmetical mean height measured from Talysurf profile records), interface gas pressure (7 to. Thermal Contact Conductance at Low Contact Pressures.

Solid-solid conductance in nuclear fuel: An assessment of it in-code models performance. Progress in Nuclear Energy, Vol. 52, No. Thermal conductance of pressed contacts at liquid helium temperatures.

The thermal conductivity [K] of CNTs depends on several factors such as the morphology, the chirality, the diameter and length of the tubes, the number of structural defects, and the specific surface area [19, 20].Thus, a description of the thermal conduction mechanisms is nontrivial.

Liu et al. [] reported a K for a SWNT and a MWNT of 2, W/mK and 1, W/mK, respectively. of helium in porous Vycor glass and in powder sam- n. W - 12 13 IL 15 16 17 I8 19 20 21 TEMPERATURE [K] Fig. 3: The coefficient of thermal expansion as a function of temperature for the samples B (squares) C (triangles) and D (circles).

The solid line re- presents the data of bulk helium.we have studied. The thermal conductance of the clean Al/SiC interface (open circles) at ambient pressure is high, G ≈ MWm−2 K−1, and is weakly dependent on pressure.

(The thermal conductance of interfaces in Al/SiC metal–matrix composites was previously found to be G ≈ MWm−2 K−1 using thermal conductivity measure.